Consolidating democracy prerequisites
E-IR publishes student essays & dissertations to allow our readers to broaden their understanding of what is possible when answering similar questions in their own studies.“The institutional design of the political system is the ultimate determinant of corruption, because it shapes the incentives facing government officials.” (Lederman et al., 2001, 13) “A simplistic distinction between just ‘democracy’ and ‘no democracy’ is unhelpful.” (Saha et al., 2014, 287) “So many young democracies are so quickly compromised.” (European Endowment for Democracy, 2015) Corruption is one of the “biggest global issues of our time” (TI, 2010).
There is no shortage of reasons to fight corruption.
However, an analysis of these indices is beyond the scope of this dissertation.
Chapter II: Definitions It does not take long to find detailed explanations of democracy (Shepard, 1935; Gallacher, 1946; Cohen, 1971; Harrison, 1993; Tilly, 2007).
Having a consolidated democracy is the stepping stone to discussing the quality of democracy; you first have to have an entrenched democracy (where backsliding is impossible/nearly impossible) in order to begin determining whether it is a "good" or "bad" democracy.
This content was written by a student and assessed as part of a university degree. (2005) The struggle to regain effective government under democracy in Indonesia.
It is necessary to divide democracy into two stages, democratisation and democratic consolidation – as levels of corruption typically increase in the initial stages of democratisation (Montinola and Jackman, 2002; Quizilbash, 2008; USIP, 2010, 10; Saha et al,. With this in mind, there is evidence to support an inverted U relationship between democracy and corruption (Treisman, 2002; Fishman and Gati, 2002; Xin and Rudel, 2004; Chowdhury, 2004). auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_democracy/v001/1.4
Chapters III, IV and V will explore the ‘democracy-corruption nexus’ through vertical, horizontal and societal accountability.
The aim is to explain the reasoning behind the ‘democracy-corruption nexus’.
It ‘chokes’ development (Langseth, 1999, 2; USIP, 2010, 6), hinders economic growth (Mauro, 1995, 109; Rose-Ackerman, 1996, 83; Chowdhury, 2004, 2) and impedes the fight to alleviate poverty (TI, 2010).
Yet there is little consensus on how to tackle corruption.